Strength performance of stabilized clayey soils with quartzite material

  • Ekrem Kalkan
  • Necmi Yarbasi
  • Ozgur Bilici
Keywords: Clayey soil, Quartzite, Stabilization, Compaction, Unconfined compressive strength


Clayey soils contain clay minerals known as smectite. These soils present problems to geotechnical
engineers due to their complex nature. Excessive compression, dispersive behavior, collapsing
behavior, low shear strength, high swell potential and frost susceptibility are some of the undesirable
properties of soils in geotechnical engineering. Soil properties such as those mentioned would cause
severe distress to structures build on them. In this regard, it is necessary to reinforce and or stabilize
the soil. In this study, clayey soils were stabilized by using additive geo-material to improve their
engineering properties. For this purpose, quartzite known geological material was used as additive.
In experimental study, the natural and stabilized clayey soil samples were subjected to the unconfined
compression, the shear box, the odometer and the falling-head permeability tests after compaction
at optimum moisture content. The test results indicated that quartzite enhanced both the unconfined
compression strength and strength parameters. Consequently, it is concluded that the quartzite can
be successfully used for the modifications of clayey soils in the geotechnical applications.


Akbulut, S., 1999. Improvement of geotechnical properties of granular soil by grouting. Ph.D. Thesis, Thecnical University of Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey.

Akbulut, S., Arasan, S., Kalkan, E., 2007. Modification of clayey soils using scrap tire rubber and synthetic fibers. Applied Clay Science 38, 23-32.

Al-Rawas, A.A., Hago, A.W., Al-Sarmi, 2005. Effect of lime, cement and sarooj (artificial pozzolan) on the swelling potential of an expansive soil from Oman. Building and Environment 40, 681-687.

Arab, M.G., 2019. Soil Stabilization Using Calcium Carbonate Precipitation via Urea Hydrolysis. Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Civil, Structural, and Environmental Engineering (CSEE’19), April, 2019, Rome, Italy.

Asavasipit, S., Nanthamontry, W., Polprasert, C., 2001. Influence of condensed silica fume on the properties of cement based solidified wastes. Cement and Concrete Research 31, 1147-1152.

Awwad, T., Zhussupbekov, A., Al Kodsi, A., 2017. Soil improvement and Foundations Strengthen Methods for Preservation of Syrian Islamic Historical Heritage. Workshop ATC19 19th ICSMGE, September, 2017, Seoul, South Korea.

Bell, F.G., 1993. Engineering Treatment of Soils, Published by E and FN Spon, an Imprint of Chapmen and Hall. Boundary Row, London.

Cetin, H., Fener, M., Gunaydin, O., 2006. Geotechnical properties of tire-cohesive clayey soil mixtures as a fill material. Engineering Geology 88, 110-120.

Chen, F.H., 1988. Foundations on Expansive Soils. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Chu, J., Varaskin, S., Klotz, U., Mengé, P., 2009. Construction Processes, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 5-9 October 2009, Alexandria, Egypt, M. Hamza et al. (Eds.), IOS Press, Amsterdam, Vol. 4, pp. 3006-3135.

Gay, G., Schad, H., 2000. Influence of cement and lime additives on the compaction properties and shear parameters of fine grained soils, Otto-Graf Journal, 11, 19-31.

Gillot, J.E., 1968. Clay in Engineering Geology. Elsevier, New York.

Guney, Y., Sari, D., Cetin, M., Tuncan, M., 2007. Impact of cyclic wetting-drying on swelling behavior of lime-stabilized soil. Building and Environment 42, 681-688.

Harichane, K., Ghrici, M., Kenai, S., 2011. Effect of curing time on shear strength of cohesive soils stabilized with combination of lime and natural pozzolana. International Journal of Civil Engineering 9 (2), 89-96.

Ingles, O.G, Metcalf, J.B., 1977. Soil Stabilization Principles and Practice. 2nd ed, Australia Butterworths.

Kalkan, E., 2003. The improvement of geotechnical properties of Oltu (Erzurum) clayey deposits for using them as barriers. PhD Thesis (in Turkish), Ataturk University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, Erzurum, Turkey.

Kalkan, E., 2009. Influence of silica fume on the desiccation cracks of compacted clayey soils. Applied Clay Science 43, 296-302.

Kalkan, E., 2011. Impact of wetting-drying cycles on swelling behavior of clayey soils modified by silica fume. Applied Clay Science 52, 345-352.

Kalkan, E., 2012. Effects of waste material-lime additive mixtures on mechanical properties of granular soils. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 71, 99-103.

Kalkan, E., 2018. Oltu Clay Deposits (Erzurum, NE Turkey) and Their Possible Usage Areas. International Journal of Innovative Research and Reviews 2(1), 25-30.

Kalkan, E., Akbulut, S., 2004. The positive effects of silica fume on the permeability, swelling pressure and compressive strength of natural clay liners. Engineering Geology 73, 145-156.

Kalkan, E., Bayraktutan, M.S., 2008. Geotechnical evaluation of Turkish clay deposits: a case study in Northern Turkey. Environmental Geology 55, 937-950.

Kalkan E., Yarbaşı, N., 2013. Use of marble dust waste material for stabilization of compacted clayey soils. Jökull Journal 63 (5), 322-344.

Kaniraj, S.R., Havanagi, V.G., 2001. Behavior of cement-stabilized fiber-reinforced fly ash-soil mixtures. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 127(7), 574-584.

Kolias, S., Kasselouri-Rigopoulou, V., Karahalios, A., 2005. Stabilization of clayey soils with high calcium fly ash and cement. Cement and Concrete Composites 27, 301-313.

Lambe, T.W., Whitman, R.V., 1979. Soil Mechanics. SI version, New York, Wiley.

Manar, G., Hesham, B., Tareq, M., 2015. Soil Improvement Techniques. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 6 (12), 217-222.

Miller, G.A., Azad, S., 2000. Influence of soil type on stabilization with cement kiln dust. Construction and Building Materials 14, 89-97.

Moavenian, M.H., Yasrobi, S.S., 2008. Volume change behavior of compacted clay due to organic liquids as permeant. Applied Clay Science 39, 60-71.

Mohamedgread, F., Yarbaşi, N., Kalkan, E., 2019. Reinforce in Engineering Properties of Clayey Soils Using Cigarette Butts and Marble Dust. European Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology 6 (8), 31-37.

Naeini, S.A., Mahdavi, A., 2009. Effect of polymer on shear strength of silty sand. EJGE 14, 1-11.

Naeini, S.A., Sadjadi, S.M., 2008. Effect of Waste Polymer Materials on Shear Strength of Unsaturated Clays. EJGE 13, 1-12.

Nath, B.D., Molla, M.K.A., Sarkar, G., 2017. Study on Strength Behavior of Organic Soil Stabilized with Fly Ash. International Scholarly Research Notices Volume 2017, Article ID 5786541, 6 pages.

Nelson, J.D., Miller, D.J., 1992. Expansive Soils: Problems and Practice in Foundation and Pavement Engineering. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.

Okagbue, C.O., Onyeobi, T.U.S., 1999. Potential of marble dust to stabilize red tropical soils for road construction. Engineering Geology 53, 371-380.

Okyay, U.S., Dias, D., 2010. Use of lime and cement treated soils as pile supported load transfer platform. Engineering Geology 114, 34-44.

Ola, S.A., 1978. Geotechnical properties and behaviour of some stabilized Nigerian laterite soils. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology 11, 145-160.

Oyediran, I.A., Kalejaiye, M., 2011. Effect of Increasing Cement Content on Strength and Compaction Parameters of some Lateritic Soils from Southwestern Nigeria. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 16, 1501-1514.

Prabakar, J., Dendorkar, N., Morchhale, R.K., 2003. Influence of fly ash on strength behavior of typical soils. Construction and Building Materials 18, 263-267.

Puppala, A.J., Musenda, C., 2002. Effects of fiber reinforcement on strength and volume change in expansive soils Paper No: 00-0716 Transportation Research Record 134-140.

Senol, A., Edil, T.B., Bin-Shafique, M., 2006. Soft subgrades' stabilization by using various fly ashes. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 46, 365-376.

Sezer, A., Inan, G., Yilmaz, H.R., Ramyar, K., 2006. Utilization of a very high lime fly ash for improvement of Izmir clay. Building and Environment 41, 150-155.

Thompson, M.R., 1968. Lime stabilization of soils for highway purposes. December 1968, Final Summary Rep. Civil Engineering Studies, Highway Series No.25, Illinois Cooperative Highway Research Program, Project IHR-76, 26 pp.

Yarbaşı, N., Kalkan E., 2019. The Stabilization of Sandy Soils by Using the Plastic Bottle Waste. International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development 6 (11), 140-144.

Yarbaşı, N., Kalkan E., Akbulut, S., 2007. Modification of the geotechnical properties, as influenced by freeze-thaw, of granular soils with waste additives. Cold Regions Science and Technology 48, 44-54

Yong, R.N., Ouhadi, V.R., 2007. Experimental study on instability of bases on natural and lime/cement-stabilized clayey soils. Applied Clay Science 35, 238-249.