Physico-Chemical Analysis of Surface and Ground Water Samples in Warri Area, Southern Nigeria

  • Ovie Odokuma-Alonge Department of Geology, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria
  • Eworitse Mene-Ejegi Department of geology, University of Benin
Keywords: Surface water Groundwater Physicochemical analysis Potability

Abstract

Surface and ground water quality in Warri, Southern Nigeria were investigated in order to determine the potability of the water in the study area. A total of nine (9) water samples were obtained (six (6) river samples and three (3) borehole samples) and analyzed for their physico-chemical properties and heavy metal concentrations using standard techniques. The results of the analysis reveals the following: pH (5.80-7.40), Temperature (28.7-30.3), Total Dissolved Solid (13.00-14,400.00), Electrical Conductivity (27.00-28,800.00) Turbidity (2.87-31.46), Dissolved Oxygen (3.30-7.40), Total Solids (23.00-14,430.00), Total Hardness (8.00-2700.00), Total Alkalinity (19.00-68.00), Total Suspended solids (4.00-30.00), Biological Oxygen Demand (1.20-2.90), Chemical Oxygen Demand (2.56-6.64), Salinity (8.06-12,390.16), SO42- (0.451-757.809), NO3- (<0.001-21.237), PO43- ((<0.001-1.616), CO3 (NP), Ca2+ (0.841-168.21), Mg2+ (0.411-554.27), Na2+ (1.426-1136.65), K+ (0.043-96.453), Fe2+ ((<0.001-0.047), Cr3+ ((<0.001-0.023), Cd2+ ((<0.001-0.004), Zn2+ ((<0.001-0.218), Cu2+ ((<0.001), and Pb2+ ((<0.001). The physico-chemical analysis reveals that the values obtained for all parameters do not fall under WHO (2018) standard for drinking water, with the exception of Biological Oxygen Demand, NO3- and PO43-. The bulk of the metrics had high concentrations, indicating that surface anthropogenic activities are likely the source of the water contamination. As a result, the water is not potable, hence unfit for human consumption. Therefore, before usage, the water must be adequately treated.

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Published
2024-05-16
Section
Articles