The Effects of Quartzite on the Swelling Behaviors of Compacted Clayey Soils

  • Ekrem Kalkan
  • Necmi Yarbaşı
  • Özgür Bilici
Keywords: Clayey soil, Quartzite, Soil stabilization, Swelling potential, Swelling pressure


The expansive soils have significant volume change associated with changes in water content. These soils be exposed to adverse changes in volume and hydraulic conductivity due to the seasonal changes in moisture content. Lightweight structures are severely affected due to high swelling pressure exerted by these soils. To prevent the damage of the constructions built on the expansive soils, these soils is improved in terms of the engineering properties. Soil stabilization is one of the most widely followed techniques to control the swelling behavior of expansive soils in lightly loaded structures. In this study, an expansive soil was stabilized by using quartzite as additive material. To determine the effects of quartzite on the swelling characteristics of stabilized clayey soils a series of tests were performed on the natural and stabilized samples with different percentages of quartzite material. For this purpose, the consistency limit tests, odometer tests and vertical swelling tests were carried out under the laboratory conditions. According to the results of experimental study showed that the swelling behavior of quartzite-stabilized clayey soil samples changed. The results of experimental study showed that the swelling pressure values, the swelling pressure values and the vertical swelling percentage values of quartzite-stabilized clayey soil samples decreased due to the addition of quartzite. As a result, the quartzite played an important role in improving the swelling behavior of the expansive soils. The test results showed that the quartzite material can be successfully used to improve the swelling characteristics of expansive soils.


Akbulut, S., 1999. Improvement of geotechnical properties of granular soil by grouting. Ph.D. Thesis, Technical University of Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey.

Akbulut, S., Arasan, S., Kalkan, E., 2007. Modification of clayey soils using scrap tire rubber and synthetic fibers. Applied Clay Science 38, 23-32.

Al-Omari, R.R., Hamodi, F.J., 1991. Swelling resistant geogrid-a new approach for the treatment of expansive soils. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 10, 295-317.

Assadi, A., Shahaboddin, S., 2009. A micro-mechanical approach to swelling behavior of unsaturated expansive clays under controlled drainage conditions. Applied Clay Science 45 (1-2), 8-19.

ASTM D 4546, 1990. Standard test method for one-dimensional swell or settlement potential of cohesive soils. : Annual Book of ASTM Standards, vol. 04.08. American Society for Testing and Materials.

ASTM D 698, 1995. Standard test method for laboratory compaction characteristics of soils using standard effort. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, vol. 04.08. American Society for Testing and Materials.

ASTM D 4318, 1995. Standard test method for liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index of soils. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, vol. 04.08. American Society for Testing and Materials.

Attom, M.F., Al-Sharif, M.M., 1998. Soil stabilization with burned olive waste. Applied Clay Science 13, 219-230.

Avsar, E., Ulusay, R., Sonmez, H., 2009. Assessments of swelling anisotropy of Ankara clay. Engineering Geology 105 (1-2), 24-31.

Bell, F.G., 1993. Engineering treatment of soils, Published by E and FN Spon, an imprint of Chapman and Hall, Boundary Row, London.

Buzzi, O., Fityus, S., Sloan, S.W., 2010. Use of expanding polyurethane resin to remediate expansive soil foundations. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 47 (6), 623-634.

Carter, M., Bentley, S.P., 2016. Shrinkage and Swelling Characteristics. In book; Soil Properties and their Correlations, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Chen, F.H., 1975. Foundations on Expansive Soils, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 74-80.

Chen, F.H., 1988. Foundations on Expansive Soils. Elsevier Scientific Publishing co., Amsterdam.

Chen, L., Yin, Z., Zhang, P., 2007. Relationship of resistivity with water content and fissures of unsaturated expansive soils. Journal of China University of Mining and Technology 17 (4), 537-540.

Chittoori, B.C., Mishra, D., Islam, K.M., 2018. Forensic investigations into recurrent pavement heave from underlying expansive soil deposits. Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 0361198118758625.

Churchman, G.J., Burke, C.M., 1991. Properties of subsoils in relation to various measures surface area and water content. Journal of Soil Science 42, 463-478.

Çokça, E., 2001. Use of class C fly ashes for the stabilization of an expansive soil. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 127 (7), 568-573.

de la Rosa, D., 1979. Relation of several pedological characteristics to engineering qualities of soil. Journal of Soil Science 30, 793- 799.

Dexter, A.R., Richard, G., Arrouays, D., Czyż, E.A., Jolivet, C., Duval, O., 2008. Complexed organic matter controls soil physical properties. Geoderma 144, 620-627.

Dolinar, B., Škrabl, S., 2013. Atterberg limits in relation to other properties of fine-grained soils. ACTA Geotechnica Slovenica 2013/2, 1-13.

Eades, J., 1962. Reactions of Ca(−OH) with clay minerals in soil stabilization. PhD Thesis, Geology Department, University of Illinois, Urbana.

Erguler, Z.A., Ulusay, R., 2003. A simple test and predictive models for assessing swell potential of Ankara (Turkey) Clay. Engineering Geology 67, 331-352.

Erzin, Y., Erol, O., 2007. Swelling pressure prediction by suction methods. Engineering Geology 92, 133-145.

Estabragh, A.R., Rafatjo, H., Javadi, A.A., 2014. Treatment of an expansive soil by mechanical and chemical techniques. Geosynthetics International 21 (3), 233-243.

Ferber, V., Auriol, J.C., Cui, Y.J., Magnan, J.P., 2009. On the swelling potential of compacted high plasticity clays.
Engineering Geology 104 (3-4), 200-210.

Fityus, S., Buzzi, O., 2009. The place of expansive clays in the framework of unsaturated soil mechanics. Applied Clay Science 43 (2), 150–155.

Gens, A., Alonso, E.E., 1992. A framework for the behavior of unsaturated expansive clays. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 29 (6), 1013-1032.

Gillot, J.E., 1968. Clay in Engineering Geology. Elsevier, New York.

Harichane, K., Ghrici, M., Kenai, S., 2011. Effect of curing time on shear strength of cohesive soils stabilized with combination of lime and natural pozzolana. International Journal of Civil Engineering 9 (2), 89-96.

Huang, R., Wu, L., 2007. Stability analysis of unsaturated expansive soil slope. Earth Science Frontiers 14 (6), 129–133.

Ikizler, S.B., Aytekin, M., Vekli, M., 2009. Reductions in swelling pressure of expansive soil stabilized using EPS geofoam and sand. Geosynthetics International 16 (3), 216-221.

Ito, M., Azam, S., 2009. Engineering characteristics of a glaciolacustrine clay deposit in a semi-arid climate. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 68, 551-557.

Ito, S.M., Azam, S., 2010. Determination of Swelling and Shrinkage Properties of Undisturbed Expansive. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 28, 413-422.

Jamsawang, P., Nuansrithong, N., Voottipruex, P., Songpiriyakij, S., Jongpradist, P., 2017. Laboratory investigations on the swelling behavior of composite expansive clays stabilized with shallow and deep clay-cement mixing methods. Applied Clay Sciences 148, 83-94.

Jewell, R.A., 1991. Application of revised design charts for steep reinforced slopes. Geotext. Geomembranes 10 (3), 203-233.

Jones, L.D., Jefferson, I.F., 2012. Expansive soils. In book: ICE Manual of Geotechnical Engineering. Volume 1, Geotechnical Engineering Principles, Problematic Soils and Site Investigation. Editors: J. Burland, Publisher: ICE Publishing.

Kalkan, E., 2003. The improvement of the geotechnical properties of Oltu (Erzurum) clayey deposits for using them as barriers. PhD Thesis, Ataturk University, Graduate Scholl of Natural and Applied Sciences, Erzurum.

Kalkan, E., 2006. Utilization of red mud as a stabilization material for preparation of clay liners. Engineering Geology 87, 220-229.

Kalkan, E., 2009a. Influence of silica fume on the desiccation cracks of compacted clayey soils. Applied Clay Science 43, 296-302.

Kalkan, E., 2009b. Effects of silica fume on the geotechnical properties of fine-grained soils exposed to freeze and thaw. Cold Region Science and Technology 58, 130-135.

Kalkan, E., 2011. Impact of wetting-drying cycles on swelling behavior of clayey soils modified by silica füme. Applied Clay Science 52, 345-352.

Kalkan, E., 2013. Preparation of scrap tires rubber fiber-silica fume mixtures for modification of clayey soils. Applied Clay Science 80-81, 117-125.

Kalkan, E., 2018. Oltu Clay Deposits (Erzurum, NE Turkey) and Their Possible Usage Areas. International Journal of Innovative Research and Reviews 2 (1), 25-30.

Kalkan, E., 2020. A Review on the Microbial Induced Carbonate Precipitation (MICP) for Soil Stabilization. International Journal of Earth Sciences Knowledge and Applications 2 81), 38-47.

Kalkan, E., Akbulut, S., 2004. The positive effects of silica fume on the permeability, swelling pressure and compressive strength of natural clay liners. Engineering Geology 73, 145-156.

Kalkan, E., Bayraktutan, M.S., 2008. Geotechnical evaluation of Turkish clay deposits: a case study in Northern Turkey. Environmental Geology 55, 937-950.

Kalkan, E., Yarbaşı, N., 2013. Use of marble dust waste material for stabilization of compacted clayey soils. Jokull Journal 63 (5), 322-344.

Kalkan, E., Yarbaşı, N., Bilici, Ö., 2019. Strength performance of stabilized clayey soils with quartzite material. International Journal of Earth Sciences Knowledge and Applications 1 (1), 1-5.

Katti, R.K., 1978. Search for Solutions to Problems in Black Cotton Soils. First I.G.S. Annual Lecture. Indian Geotechnical Society at Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India.

Kayabali, K., Demir, S., 2011. Measurement of swelling pressure: direct method versus indirect methods. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 48 (3), 354-364.

Keith, K.S., Murray, H.H., 1994. Clay liners and barriers. In: Carr DD (Ed) Industrial minerals and rocks. Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Littleton, 6th edn, pp 249-255.

Koerner, R.M., 1999. Designing with Geosynthetics. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J.

Locat, J., Lefebvre, G., Ballivy, G., 1984. Mineralogy, chemistry and physical property interrelationships of some sensitive clays from Eastern Canada. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 21, 530-540.

Madhyannapu, R.S., Puppala, A.J., 2014. Design and construction guidelines for deep soil mixing to stabilize expansive soils. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 140 (9), 1-15.

Mbagwa, J.S.C., Abeh, O.G., 1998. Prediction of engineering properties of tropical soils using intrinsic pedological
parameters. Soil Science 163, 93-102.

Murray, H.H., 2000. Traditional and anew applications for kaolin, smectite, and palygorskite: a general overview. Applied Clay Sciences 17, 207-221.

Nagaraj, H.B., Munnas, M.M., Sridharan, A., 2010. Swelling behavior of expansive soils. International Journal of
Geotechnical Engineering 4(1), 99-110.

Nalbantoglu, Z., 2004. Effectiveness of Class C fly ash as an expansive soil stabilizer. Construction and Building Materials 18 (6), 377-381.

Nalbantoglu, Z., Gucbilmez, E., 2001. Improvement of calcareous expansive soils in semi-arid environments. Journal of Arid Environments 47 (4), 453-463.

Nelson, D.J., Miller, J.D., 1992. Expansive Soils: Problems and Practice in Foundation and Pavement Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Nowamooz, H., Masrouri, F., 2008. Hydromechanical behavior of an expansive bentonite/silt mixture in cyclic suction-controlled drying and wetting tests. Engineering Geology 101 (3-4), 154-164.

Ohtsubo, M., Takayama, M., Egashira, K., 1983. Relationships of consistency limits and activity to some physical and chemical properties of Ariake marine clays. Soils and Foundations 23, 38-46.

Okagbue, C.O., Onyeobi, T.U.S., 1999. Potential of marble dust to stabilize red tropical soils for road construction. Engineering Geology 53, 371-380.

Okyay, U.S., Dias, D., 2010. Use of lime and cement treated soils as pile supported load transfer platform. Engineering Geology 114, 34-44.

Ola, S.A., 1978. Geotechnical properties and behaviour of some stabilized Nigerian laterite soils. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology 11, 145-160.

Öncü, Ş., Bilsel, H., 2017. Effect of zeolite utilization on volume change and strength properties of expansive soil as landfill barrier. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 54 (9), 1320-1330.

Petry, T.M., Little, D.N., 2002. Review of stabilization of clays and expansive soils in pavements and lightly loaded structureshistory, practice, and future. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 14 (6), 447-460.

Puppala, A.J., Punthutaecha, K., Vanapalli, S.K., 2006. Soil-water characteristic curves of stabilized expansive soils. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 132 (6), 736- 751.

Rao, S.M., Reddy, B.V.V., Muttharam, M., 2001. The impact of cyclic wetting and drying on the swelling behaviour of stabilized expansive soils. Engineering Geology 60 (1-4), 223-233.

Sabtan, A., 2005. Geotechnical properties of expansive clay shale in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 25 (5), 747-757.

Schmitz, R.M., Schreoder, C., Charlier, R., 2004. Chemomechanical interactions in clay: a correlation between clay
mineralogy and Atterberg limits. Applied Clay Science 26, 351-358.

Seco, A., Ramírez, F., Miqueleiz, L., García, B., 2011. Stabilization of expansive soils for use in construction. Applied Clay Science 51, 348-352.

Selvakumar, S., Soundara, B., 2019. Swelling behaviour of expansive soils with recycled geofoam granules column inclusion. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 47, 1-11.

Seybold, C.A., Elrashidi, M.A., Engel, R.J., 2008. Linear regression models to estimate soil liquid limit and plasticity index from basic soil properties. Soil Science 173, 25-34.

Sharma, R.S., Phanikumar, B.R., 2005. Laboratory study of heave behavior of expansive clay reinforced with geopiles. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 131 (4), 512- 520.

Singhal, S., Houston, S.L., Houston, W.N., 2015. Swell pressure, matric suction, and matric suction equivalent for undisturbed expansive clays. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 52 (3), 356–366.

Sivapullaiah, P.V., Sridharan, A., Bhaskar, R.K.V., 2000. Role of amount and type of clay in the lime stabilization of soils. Ground Improvement 4, 37-45.

Soundara, B., Robinson, R.G., 2009. Influence of test method on swelling pressure of compacted clay. International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 3 (3), 439-444.

Sridharan, A., Gurtug, Y., 2004. Swelling behaviour of compacted fine-grained soils. Engineering Geology 72 (1-2), 9-18.

Sridharan, A., Rao, S.M., Murthy, N.S., 1988. Liquid limit of kaolinitic soils. Geotecnique 38, 191-198.

Sridharan, A., Rao, A.S., Sivapullaiah, P.V., 1986. Swelling pressure of clays. Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM 9 (1), 24-33.

Viswanadham, B.V.S., Viswanadham, B.R., Mukherjee, R., 2009. Swelling behavior of a geofiber-reinforced expansive soil. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 27 (1), 73-76.

Wang, G., Wei, X., 2015. Modeling swelling–shrinkage behavior of compacted expansive soils during wetting-drying cycles. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 52 (6), 783-794.

Yarbaşı, N., Kalkan, E., 2020. The Mechanical Performance of Clayey Soils Reinforced with Waste PET Fibers. International Journal of Earth Sciences Knowledge and Applications 2 (1), 19-26.

Yarbasi, N., Kalkan, E., Akbulut, S., 2007. Modification of the geotechnical properties, as influenced by freeze-thaw, of granular soils with waste additives. Cold Regions Science & Technology 48, 45-54.

Yazdandoust, F., Yasrobi, S.S., 2010. Effect of cyclic wetting and drying on swelling behavior of polymer-stabilized expansive clays. Applied Clay Sciences 50 (4), 461-468.

Zhang, J-R., Cao, X., 2002. Stabilization of Expansive Soil by Lime and Fly Ash. Journal of Wuhan University of Technology - Materials Science Edition 17 (4), 73-77.

Zhang, J., Sun, D., Zhou, A., Jiang, T., 2016. Hydromechanical behavior of expansive soils with different suctions and suction histories. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 53 (1), 1-13.

Zolfaghari, Z., Mosaddeghi, M.R., Ayoubi, S., Kelishadi, H., 2015. Soil atterberg limits and consistency indices as influenced by land use and slope position in Western Iran. Journal of Mountain Science 12 (6), 1471-1483.