Geoengineering Deterministic Properties of Tropical Red Soil in Sobe, Edo State, Nigeria in Relation to Civil Engineering Structure
The long serviceability expectancy of civil engineering structures depends on the index properties and bearing capacity of the foundation soil. Therefore, the study of engineering behaviour of soil is extremely important during the design, construction and post construction phases of civil engineering projects. This study investigates the index properties of Sobe tropical red soil in relation to building foundation, embankment, and flexible pavement constructions. The study adopted geochemical analysis, in-situ cone penetration test, borehole logging, and geotechnical laboratory soil analysis using American Standard of Testing and Material. Findings revealed the USCS and AASHTO class of the soil to be CH – CL (medium graded soil) and A-7-6 respectively, signifying poor foundation material, of high compressibility and expansion, with intermediate - high plasticity. The soil is characterized by unit weight (av. 18.3 KN/m2), soaked CBR (av. 7%), cohesion (av. 26.4 KN/m2), angle of friction (18°), compression index (0.4489), compression modulus (2.78 N/mm2), coefficient of volume compressibility (0.7721 m2/KN), group index number (11.6), plasticity index (34.74 %). The material showed average bearing pressure of 111 KN/m2 at 1 m depth for building foundation. The average (av.) values of the major mineral oxides present in the samples are Na2O (av. 1.98 %), K2O (av. 2.54 %), Al2O3 (av. 18.79 %), Fe2O3 (av. 19.83 %), and SiO2 (av. 61.18 %). However, Al2O3, Fe2O3, and SiO2 constitute 95 % of the mineral oxides. The silica - sesquioxide ratio (Se) of the soil showed that all the soil sampled soil are lateritic with a range of 1.27 – 1.96 (av. 1.59). The soil has fair to poor stability for embankment slope, thin cores, blankets and dike sections. Thus using the group index and CBR design chart for flexible pavement, the combined thickness of base and surfacing should be 30 cm and 38.1 cm for sub-base/subgrade course. In conclusion, the soil required improvement or stabilization either with chemical (lime, cement, fly ash or asphalt) or by mechanical method, which would invariably reduce its plasticity/compressibility, and increase the shear strength and bearing capacity.
Agbede, O.A., 1992. Characteristic of Tropical Red Soils as Foundation Materials. Nigerian Journal of Sciences 26, 237-242.
Arora, K.R., 2008. Soil mechanics and foundation engineering (Geotechnical Engineering). Standard Publishers Distributors, Delhi.
ASTM, 2006. Annual Book of ASTM Standards – Sections 4.02, 4.08, 4.09 and 4.13. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Baligh, M.M., Azzouz, A.D., Wissa, A.Z.E., Martin, R.T., Marrison, M.H., 1981. The piezocone penetrometer. Symposium on Cone Penetration Testing and Experience, ASCE, geotechnical engineering division, St Louis, pp 247-263.
Bell, F.G., 1996. Lime stabilization of clay minerals and soils. Engineering Geology 42 (4), 223-237.
Bello, A.A., Adegoke, C.W., 2010. Evaluation of Geotechnical Properties of Ilesha East Southwestern Nigeria’s Lateritic Soil. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology 11 (2), 617-624.
Bose, B., 2012. Geoengineering properties of expansive soil stabilized with fly ash. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 17, 1339-1353.
Black, W., Lister, N.W., 1978. The strength of fill sub-grades, its prediction and relation to road performance. ICE Conference on Clay Fills, 37-48. https://doi.org/10.1680/cf1979.00698.0004.
Bowles, J.E., 1984. Physical and Geotechnical Properties of Soils. McGraw-Hill Intl. Edi., Civil Engineering Series: London, UK. 1004.
Kamtchueng, B.T., Onana, V.L., Fantong, W.Y., Ueda, A., Ntouala, F.D., Wongolo, H.D., Ndongo, G.B., Ngo’o Ze, A., Kamgang, K.B., Ondoa, J.M., 2015. Geotechnical, chemical and mineralogical evaluation of lateritic soils in humid tropical area (Mfou, Central-Cameroon): Implications for Road Construction. International Journal of Geo-Engineering 6 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40703-014-0001-0.
Brosten, T.R., Llopis, J.L., Kelley, J.R., 2005. Using geophysics to assess the condition of small embankment dams. US Army Corps of Engineers of Engineer Research and Development Center, 28pp.
Brown, S.F., 1996. Soil mechanics in pavement engineering. Geotechnique 46, 383-426.
Cetin, K.O., Ozan, C., 2009. CPT-based probabilistic soil characterization and classification. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 135 (1), 84-107.
Charman, J.H., 1988. Laterite in Road Pavements. Special Publication 47, Construction Industry Research and Information Association, London.
Coker, J.O., 2015. Integration of Geophysical and Geotechnical Methods to Site Characterization for Construction Work at the School of Management Area, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria. International Journal of Energy Science and Engineering 1 (2), 40-48.
Das, B.M., 2015. Principles of foundation engineering. Cengage learning, Boston.
Douglas, B.J., Olsen, R.S., 1981. Soil classification using electric cone penetrometer. In: Norris GM, Holtz RD (eds) Proceedings of the symposium on cone penetration testing and experience, St. Louis, Mo., 26–30 October 1981. Geotechnical engineering division, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, pp 209-227.
Elarabi, H., Taha, M., Elkhawad, T., 2013. Some Geological and Geotechnical Properties of Lateritic Soils from Muglad Basin Located in the South-Western Part of Sudan. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences 5 (6), 291-294.
Ezenwaka, K.C., Ugboaja, A., Ahaneku, C.V., Ede, T.A., 2014. Geotechnical investigation for design and construction of civil infrastructures in parts of port Harcourt City of Rivers State, Southern Nigeria. The International Journal of Engineering Science 3, 74-82.
Falowo, O.O., Olabisi, W.K., Olaifa, G.E., 2017. Geochemical and Geotechnical Appraisal of the Regolith along Ado-Ilawe Road, Ekiti State, Nigeria for Engineering Construction. International Journal of Advance Research and Engineering Trends 2 (11), 277-284.
FMWH, 1997. Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, General Specifications for Roads and Bridges II, 145-284. Federal Highway Department: Lagos, Nigeria.
FHWA NHI-05-037, 2006. Geotechnical aspects of pavement. U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration, 4-17.
Gadallah, M., Fisher, R., 2009. Exploration Geophysics, Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Publication, Springer, 274 pp.
Garg S. K., 2007. Physical and Engineering Geology, Khanna Publisher, Delhi, India, pp. 338-348.
George, K.P., Uddin, W., 2000. Subgrade characterization for highway pavement design. Final Report, Jackson, MS: Mississippi Department of Transportation.
Gidigasu, M.D., 1976. Laterite Soil Engineering. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., New York.
Gidigasu, M.D., Kuma, D.O.K., 1987. Engineering Significance of Laterisation and Profile Development Processes. Proceedings of 9th Regional Conference for Africa on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Lagos, Nigeria.
Graham, J., Shields, D.H., 1984. Influence of geology and geological processes on the geotechnical properties of a plastic clay. Journal of Engineering Geology 22 (2), 109-126.
Hadjigeorgiou, J., Kyriakou, E., Papanastasiou, P., 2006. A road embankment failure near Pentalia in Southwest Cyprus. The South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy International Symposium on stability of rock slopes in open pit mining and Civil Engineering situation, Symposium Series S44 3–6, Victoria and Alfred Waterfront, Cape Town, 11.
Hausmann, M.R., 1990. Engineering principles of ground modification. McGraw-Hill, Maidenheach.
Ilori, A.O., 2015. Geotechnical characterization of a highway route alignment with light weight penetrometer (LRS 10), in southeastern Nigeria, International journal of Geo-Engineering 6 (7), 28.
IRC: 37, 1970. Guidelines for the design of flexible pavements, The Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi.
Jegede, O.G., Olaleye, B.M., 2013. Evaluation of engineering geological and geotechnical properties of Subgrade soils along the Re-Aligned Igbara-Odo Ikogosi Highway, Southwestern, Nigeria. The International Journal of Engineering and Science (IJES), 2 (5), 18-21.
Jones, H.A., Hockey, R.D., 1964. The Geology of Parts of Southwestern Nigeria. Lagos. Geological Survey of Nigeria Bulletin 31, 101.
Keller, G.V., Frischknecht, F.C., 1966. Electrical methods in Geophysical Prospecting. Oxford: Pergamon Press Inc.
Kogbe, C.A., 1976. Paleogeographic History of Nigeria from Albian Time. In: Geology of Nigeria. C.A. Kogbe (ed.). University of Ife: Nigeria, 237-252.
Logmo, E. O., Ngon Ngon, G.F., Samba, W., Mbog, M.B., Etame, J., 2013. Geotechnical, mineralogical and chemical characterization of the missole II clayey materials of Douala Sub-Basin (Cameroon) for construction materials. Open Journal of Civil Engineering 3 (2), 46-53.
Lowrie, W. 2007. Fundamental of Geophysics, second edition, Cambridge University Press, UK, 393 pp.
Maigien, R., 1966. Review of Research on Laterites. Natural Resources Research IV, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris.
Martin, F.J., Doyne, H.C. 1927. Laterite and lateritic soils in Sierra Leone. Journal of Agricultural Science 17, 530-547.
Mayne, P.W., 2007. Cone penetration testing: a synthesis of highway practice. Project 20-`5. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. NCHRP Synthesis 368.
Milson, J., 2003. Field Geophysics: The Geological Field Guide Series, 3rd Ed., Published John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 88 pp.
Mitchell, J.K., Soga, K., 2005. Fundamentals of soil behavior, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York. ISBN: 978-0-471-46302-3
Moss, R.E.S., Seed, R.B., Olsen, R.S., 2006. Normalizing the CPT for overburden stress. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 132 (3), 378-387.
Nigerian Geological Survey Agency, 2006. Geological and ineral Map of Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria.
Nwankwoala, H.O., Amadi, A.N., Warmate, T., Jimoh, M.O., 2015. Geotechnical Properties of subsoils in Escravos Estuary, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture 3(1), 8-14.
Nwankwoala, H.O., Amadi, A.N., Ushie, F.A., Warmate, T., 2014. Determination of Subsurface Geotechnical Properties for Foundation Design and Construction in Akenfa Community, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture 2 (4), 130-135.
Nwankwoala, H.O., Warmate, T., 2014. Geotechnical assessment of foundation conditions of a site in Ubima, Ikwerre Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Research Development 9, 50-63.
Obaje, N.G., 2009. Geology and mineral resources of Nigeria. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 120.
Ogbe, F.G.A., 1972. Stratigraphy of Strata Exposed in Ewekoro Quarry, Western Nigeria. In: Dessauvagie, T.F.J. and Whiteman, A.J., Eds., African Geology, University of Ibadan Press, Ibadan, 305-322.
Oghenero, A.E., Akpokodje, E.G., Tse, A.C., 2014. Geotechnical properties of subsurface soils in Warri, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering 4, 89-102.
Oladeji, O.S. and Raheem, A.A. 2002. Soil Tests for Road Construction. Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology 9 (2), 3971-3981
Olayanju, G.M., Mogaji, K.A., Lim, H.S., Ojo, T.S., 2017. Foundation integrity assessment using integrated geophysical and geotechnical techniques: Case study in crystalline basement complex, southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering 14, 675-690.
Omatsola, M.E., Adegoke, O.S., 1981. Tectonic Evolution and Cretaceous Stratigraphy of the Dahomey. Basin. Journal of Mining and Geology 18 (1), 130-137.
Peck, R.P., Hanson, E., Thornburn, T.H., 1974. Foundation engineering, 2nd edn. John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 28-337.
Pedarla, A., Chittoori, S., Puppala, A., 2011. Influence of mineralogy and plasticity index on the stabilization effectiveness of expansive clays. Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2212, 91-99.
Radhakrishnan, G., Kumar, M.A., Raju, G., 2014. Swelling properties of expansive soils treated with chemicals and fly ash. American Journal of Engineering Research 3 (4), 245-250.
Reyment, R.A., 1965. Quantitative Paleoecologic Analysis of Ewekoro and Oshosun Formations of Western Nigeria. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 86, 248-256.
Robertson, P.K., 1990. Soil classification using the cone penetration test. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 27, 151-158.
Rogers, J.D., 2006. Subsurface exploration using the standard penetration test and the cone penetrometer test. Environmental and Engineering Geoscience 12 (2), 161-179.
Roy, S., Bhalla, S.K., 2017. Role of geotechnical properties of soil on civil engineering structures. Resources and Environment 7 (4), 103-109.
Sanglerat, G., 1972. The penetration and soil exploration, Development in geotechnical engineering, Elsevier Scientific Publishing, New York.
Schmertmann, J.H., 1978. Guidelines for cone test, performance, and design. Federal highway administration, Washington, D.C. Report FHWA-TS-78209.
Sharma, P.V., 1997. Environmental and Engineering Geophysics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Sherwood, P., 1993. Soil stabilization with cement and lime. Transport Research Laboratory, College Park.
Shiva, P., Kumar, K., Darga, K.N., 2016. Use of CPT and DCP based correlations in characterization of subgrade of a highway in Southern Ethiopia Region. International Journal of Geo-Engineering 7 (11), https://doi.org/10.1186/s40703-016-0025-8.
Singh, P., 2008. Engineering and General Geology, 8th Revised Edition, S.K. Kataria & Sons, New Delhi, 591 pp.
Soupios, P.M., Papazachos, C.B., Vargemezis, G., Fikos, I., 2005. Application of modern seismic methods for geotechnical site characterization Proc. Int. Workshop in Geoenvironment and Geotechnics (Milos Island, Greece, 12–14 September) pp 163-70.
Soupios, P., Papazachos, C.B., Vargemezis, G., Savvaidis, A., 2006. In situ geophysical investigation to evaluate dynamic soil properties at the Ilarionas Dam, Northern Greece Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Advances in Mineral Resources Management and Environmental Geotechnology (Hania, Crete, Greece, 25–27 September) (Heliotopos Conferences) pp 149-56.
Telford, W.M., Geldart L.P., Sheriff, R.E., 1990. Applied Geophysics. Cambridge University Press, London. Wright, P.H. 1986. Highway Engineering, Sixth Edition. John Willey and Sons: New York, NY.
Venkatranmaiah, C., 2006. Geotechnical Engineering. New Age International Limited Publisher, pp. 541-603.
Copyright (c) 2022 FALOWO OLUSOLA OLUMUYIWA
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The authors keep the copyrights of the published materials with them, but the authors are aggee to give an exclusive license to the publisher that transfers all publishing and commercial exploitation rights to the publisher. The puslisher then shares the content published in this journal under CC BY-NC-ND license.