Petrography and Geochemical Characterization of the Neoproterozoic Migmatites Around Mararraban Liman Katagum, Bauchi Nigeria
Tahir Ahmad Garba
Student
Ahmed isah Haruna
Faisal Abdullahi
Fatima Ibrahim Maikore
PDF

Keywords

Migmatite, Metatexite, Diatexite, Morphology, Petrograhy, Geochemistry

Abstract

The migmatitic rocks exposed around Mararraban Liman Katagum, Bauchi Nigeria were studied with a view to determine the Geology, petrography, geochemistry and morphology. The area has various morphological units of migmatites. metatexites occurring as patchy metatexite, diatexites as melanocratic diatexite, mesocratic and leucocratic diatexite. They have various flow structures of ptygmatitic folding that are induced by magmatic flow and this morphological forms of migmatite are associated with one another. Petrographic analysis shows metamorphic mineral assemblage comprises of quartz + plagioclase + biotite ± Microcline ± Muscovite ± orthopyroxene ± silliminite ± garnet ± accessory minerals and a typical abundance of quartz and biotite. The presence of metamorphic optical properties such as undulous extinction in quartz and obliteration of twinning in feldspar, and microstructure such as mymerkite, perthite indicate the rocks were subjected to pressure and temperature, and that partial melting is the main process that form the different suites of migmatitic rocks of the study area. Geochemically, a slight inverse correlation between SiO2 and few elements is observed. This suggests that the classic model of fractional crystallization is not the principal process influencing the lithological diversity but partial melting in which the correlation patterns are controlled by the geochemistry of the solid phases been added to the melt. Various models were used to determine the ancestry of the migmatite in the study area. In all the plots the migmatite fell within sedimentary/ metasedimentary field which suggests that the protolith of the migmatite are of sedimentary or metasedimentary rocks.

PDF

References

Abaa, S.I., 1983. The structure and petrography of alkaline rocks of the Mada Younger Granite Complex, Nigeria. Jounal of African Earth Science 3, 107-113.

Ajibade, A.C., Fitches, W.R., Wright, J.B., 1979. The Zungeru mylonites, Nigeria: recognition of amajor unit. Revue de Géologie et Géographie Physique 21, 359-363.

Ajibade, A.C., Wright, J.B., 1989. The Togo–Benin–Nigeria Shield: Evidence of crustal aggregation in the Panafrican Belt. Journal of Tectonophysics 165, 125-129.

Ball, E., 1980. An example of very consistent brittle deformation over a wide intra- continental area: the late Pan-African fracture system of the Tuareg and Nigerian shield. Tectonophys 61, 363-379.

Barley, M.E., Eisenlohr, B.N., Groves, D.I., Perring, C.S., Vearncombe, J.R., 1989. Late Archaean convergent margin tectonics and gold mineralization: a new look at the NorsemanWilunaBelt, Western Australia. Geology 17, 826-829.

Batchelor, R.A., Bowden, P., 1985. Petrogenetic inter-pretation of granitoid rock series using multicationic parameters. Chemical Geology 48, 43-55.

Bea, F., 1996. Residence of REE, Y, Th and U in granites and crustal protoliths: Implications for the chemistry of crustal melts. Journal of Petrology 37, 521-552.

Bea, F., Montero, P., 1999. Behavior of accessory phases and redistribution of Zr, REE, Y, Th, and U during metamorphism and partial melting of metapelites in the lower crust: An example from the Kinzigite Formation of Ivrea-Verbano, NW Italy.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 63, 1133-1153.

Black, R., Caby, R., Moussine-Pouchkine, A., Bayer, R., Betrand, J. M., Boullier, M.M., Fabre, J., Resquer, A., 1979. Evidence for late Precambrian plate tectonics in West Africa. Nature 278, 223-227.

Black, R., Girod, M., 1972. In African Magmatism and Tectonics (eds Clifford, T.N., Gass, I.G.,) 185-210. (Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh 1972).

Burke, K.C., Dewey, F.J., 1972. Orogeny in Africa. In: Dessauvagie, T.F.J. and Whiteman, A.J., Ed., African Geology, Ibadan University Press, Ibadan, 583-608.

Caby, R., Bertrand, J.M.I., Black, R., 1981. Pan African Ocean Closure and Continental Collision in the HoggarIforas Segment, Central Sahara. In: Kroner, A., Ed., Precambrian Plate Tectonics, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 407-434.

Clarke, D.B., Dorais, M., Barbarin, B., Barker, D., Cesare, B., Clarke, G., el Baghdadi, M., Erdmann, S., Förster, H.J., Gaeta, M., Gottesmann, B., Jamieson, R.A., Kontak, D.J., Koller, F., Gomes, C.L., London, D., Morgan, VI. G.B., Neves, L.J.P.F., Pattison, D.R.M., Pereira, A.J.S.C., Pichavant, M., Rapela, C.W., Renno, A.D., Richards, S., Roberts, M., Rottura, A., Saavedra, J., Sial, A.N., Toselli, A.J., Ugidos, J.M., Uher, P., Villaseca, C., Visonà, D., Whitney, D.L., Williamson, B., Woodard, H.H., 2005. Occurrence and origin of andalusite in peraluminous felsic igneous rocks. Journal of Petrology 46, 441-472.

Cox, K.G., Bell, J.D., Pankhurst, R.J., 1979. The Interpretation of Igneous rocks. George Allen and Unwin, London.

Dada, S.S., 2006. Crust forming ages and Proterozoic crustal evolution in Nigeria, a reappraisal of current interpretations. Precambrian Research 87, 65-74.

Debon, F., Le Fort, P., 1983. A chemical–mineralogical classification of common plutonic rocks and associations. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Journal of Earth Sciences 73, 135-149.

El Bouseily, A.M., El Sokkary, A.A., 1975. The relation between Rb, Ba and Sr in granitic rocks. Chemical Geology 16 (3), 207-219.

Ferre, C.E., Caby, R., 2006. Granulite facies metamorphism and charnockite plutonism: examples from the Neoproterozoic Belt of Northern Nigeria. Journal of Geology 100, 06006.

Frost, B.R., Barnes, C.G., Collins, W.J., Arculus, R.J., Ellis, D.J., Frost, C.D., 2001. A geochemical classification for granitic rocks. Journal of Petrology 42, 2033-2048.

Gandu, A.H., Ojo, S.B., Ajakaiye, D.E., 1986. A gravity study of the Precambrian rocks in the Malum-fashi area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Tectonophysics 126,181-194.

Garrels, R.M., Mackenzie, F.T., 1971. Evolution of sedimentary rocks. W. W. Norton & Co. Inc. New York, 394 p.

Gromet, L.P., Silver, L.T., 1983. Rare earth element distribution among minerals in a granodiorite and their pctrogenetic implications. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 47, 925-940.

Harris, N.B.W., Pearce, J.A., Tindle, A.G., 1986. Geochemical characteristics of collision- zone magmatism. In: Coward, M.P, Ries, A.C (Eds.), Collision Tectonics. Geological Society of London Special Publication 19, 67-81.

Kennedy, W.Q., 1964. The structural differentiation of Africa in the Pan African ±500 Ma. tectonic episode, In: 8th Annual Report of the Research Institute of African Geology, Leeds University, UK, 128.

Mehnert, K.R., 1968. Migmatites and the originof granitic rocks. Developments in Petrology 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 393 pp.

Mc Curry, P.J., 1989. A general review of the Geology of the Precambrian to lower Paleozoic rocks of Northern Nigeria. In C.A Kogbe (Editor) Geology of Nigeria. Rockview Limited. Jos. pp13-37.

Oyawoye, M.O., 1972. The basement complex of Nigeria. In: Dessauvagie TFJ, Whiteman AJ (eds) African geology. Ibadan University Press, pp 66-102.

Olayinka, A.I., 1992. Geophysical siting of boreholes in crystalline basement areas of Africa. Journal of African Earth Science 14, 197-207.

Pearce, J. A., Harris, N.B.W., Tindle, A.G., 1984. Trace element discrimination diagram for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks. Journal of Petrology 25, 956-983.

Rahaman, M.A., Ocan, O., 1978. On Relationship in the Precambrian Migmatite-Gneiss of Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology 15, 23-30.

Raju, R.D, Rao, J.S.R.K., 1972. The chemical distinction between replacement and magmatic granitic rocks. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 35, 169-172.

Rollinson, H., 1993. Using Geochemical Data: evaluation, presentation, interpretation. Longman Group UK Limited.

Sawka, W.N., Chappell, B.W., 1988. Fractionation of uranium, thorium and rare earth elements in a vertically zoned granodiorite: implications for heat production distribution in the Sierra Nevada batholith, California, U.S.A. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 52, 1131-1144.

Sawyer, E.W., 2008. Atlas of migmatites: Quebec, Mineralogical Association of Canada, The Canadian Mineralogist Special Publication 9, 386 p.

Sederholm, J.J., 1907. Om granit och gneisderas uppkomst, uppträdande och utbredning inom urbergeti Fennoskandia. Bull. Commission géologique de Finlande 23, 110 pp.

Sederholm, J.J., 1923. On migmatites and associated Precambrian rocks of southwestern Finland I: The Pellinge region. Bull. Commission géologique de Finlande 58, 158 pp.

Sederholm, J.J., 1926. On migmatites and associated Precambrian rocks of southwestern Finland II: The region around the Barösundsfjärd west of Helsingfors and neighbouring areas. Bull.Commission géologique de Finlande 77, 143 pp.

Tarney, J., 1976. Geochemistry of Archaean high-grade gneisses with implications as to the origin and evolution of the Precambrian crust. In: Windley, B.F. (Ed.), The Early History of the Earth. Wiley, New York, pp. 405-418.

Taylor, S.R., McLennan, S.M., 1985. The Continental Crust: Its Composition and Evolution: Oxford, U.K., Blackwell, 312 p.

Watson, E.B., Liang, Y., 1995. A simple model for sector zoning in slowly grown crystals: implications for growth rate and lattice diffusion, with emphasis on accessory minerals in crustal rocks. American Mineralogist 80, 1179-1187

Watt, G.R., Burns, I.M., Graham, G.A., 1996. Chemical characteristics of migmatites: Accessory phase distribution and evidence for fast melt segregation rates. Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology 125, 100-111.

Villaseca, C., Barbero, L., Herreros, V., 1998. A re-examination of the typology of peraluminous granite types in intracontinental orogenic belts. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences 89, 113-119.

Wright, J.B., Hastings, D.A., Jones, B.W., Williams, H.R., 1985. Geology and Mineral Resourcesof West Africa. George Allen and Unwin. London,187 pp.
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

The authors keep the copyrights of the published materials with them, but the authors are aggee to give an exclusive license to the publisher that transfers all publishing and commercial exploitation rights to the publisher. The puslisher then shares the content published in this journal under CC BY-NC-ND license.