Characterization of Besak/Gandaf Quarries and Bada Clay Deposits Using in the Construction of Dams and Roads, District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkha, Pakistan

  • Rafique Ahmad Department of Geology, Bacha Khan University, Charsadda, 24420 Pakistan
  • Fazal Haq Department of Geology, Bacha Khan University, Charsadda, 24420 Pakistan
  • Taqweem Ul Haq Ali Department of Geology, Bacha Khan University, Charsadda, 24420 Pakistan
  • Gohar Rahman Department of Geology, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, 25120 Pakistan
Keywords: Petrography, Earth work materials, Aggregates, Rocks strength, AASHTO


The current study comprises of different tests conducted for soil and aggregates used in the construction of dams and roads. Among these tests gradation (sieve analysis), liquid limit, plastic limit, modified proctor, sand unit weight California bearing ratio (CBR) and hydrometer test were performed for soil mechanics. Gradation (sieve analysis) sand equivalent test, Loss Angles Abrasion (LA) test, soundness test, flakiness and elongation test, specific gravity and water absorption tests were performed for aggregate class. Based on observation regarding gradation test the collected sample is classified as A-6 type material. Data regarding plasticity index (PI) revealed that liquid limit is 38.1% while plastic limit is 24.7%. Proctor test exhibited that optimum moisture content (OMC) and maximum dry density (MDD) are 5.6 % and 2.293 g/cc respectively. Sand unit weight was noted as 1.547. The result for sand equivalent test is 83.3 %. LA and soundness test for coarse aggregate were analyzed as 24.0 % and 3.7% respectively. The result for flakiness and elongation test were 10% and 11% while the result for Specific Gravity and water Absorption test were analyzed as 2.647 and 1.6% respectively. The result obtained from all these tests are according to the American Association of state highways and transportation officials (AASHTO) standard. The materials with unsatisfactory result are strongly suggested to be avoided.


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