Geochemical Discriminant for Provenance Characterization of Some Clay Deposits in Edo State, Nigeria

  • Daniel Imariabe Omoruyi Department of Geology, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
  • Martins Ilevbare
  • Ayamezimi Oziofu Ehinlaiye
  • Christopher Nnaemeka Akujieze
Keywords: Clay, Mineralogy, Physicochemical characteristics, Weathering indices, Provenance


Bulk geochemical analysis was carried out using X-Ray Fluoresces spectrometry and X-Ray diffractometry methods on the samples from some clay deposits from six locations in Edo State, Nigeria, namely Abudu, Arakhuan, Iguoriakhi, Obadolovbiyeyi, Okhoro, Okomu, to infer their provenance, tectonic setting and source-area weathering. The major oxides for SiO2 in percent are 54.55, 54.52, 54.64, 58.38, 56.38 and 54.64 in Abudu, Arakhuan, Iguoriakhi, Obadolovbiyeyi, Okhoro and Okomu clay respectively. However, it is highest in Obadolovbiyeyi communityhe average concentration of Al2O3 are 29.90%, 28.22%, 28.87%, 18.85%, 28.81% and 28.87% in Abudu, Arakhuan, Iguoriakhi, Obadolovbiyeyi, Okhoro and Okomu clay respectively. The highest percent of Alumina is in Abudu while the lowest concentration of Alumina is in Obadolovbiyeyi; the low Al2O3 concentration is due to lower intensity of alterations of the rocks into clays. The clay samples from this study are characterized by low content of Fe2O3, TiO2 and MgO indicating the dominant source from felsic rocks compositions. The result showed that the dominant clay mineral from the diffractogram profiles is kaolinite. Illite, mica and montmorrillonite while the non-clay minerals are quartz and feldspar, with the quartz peak being very prominent. The minimum and maximum averages for the clay are Y is 10.50 ppm at Arakhuan clay and 23.81 ppm at Abudu clay. Similarly, for Nb, Ta and Sc minimum and maximum values are Nb (8.62 ppm, 25.50 ppm) for Okhoro and arakhuan clay, Ta (10.11 ppm, 20.85 ppm) for Obadolovbiyeyi and Abudu clay and Sc (66.73 ppm, 71.70 ppm) for Okomu and Iguoriakhi clay.  From this study, the maximum concentration of Ni (82.76 ppm) and Co (45.45 ppm) have concentrations way lower than for mafic and Ultramafic, hence, this authenticate its provenance has been from a felsic origin/source.


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